Zwyczaj jako źródło ponadnarodowego prawa handlu elektronicznego

dr Przemysław PolańskiZapraszam do lektury rozprawy doktorskiej autorstwa dr Przemysława Polańskiego, pt. "Custom as a source of supranational Internet Commerce Law", Faculty of Science & Faculty of Law, The University of Melbourne, lipiec 2003. To pierwsza rozprawa doktorska, którą publikuje w serwisie VaGla.pl Prawo i Internet.

Rozprawa doktorska dostępna jest w pliku PhD_p_polanski_final.pdf.gz (4.4 MB, archiwum spakowane GZipem zawiera plik w formacie PDF, 234 strony). Plik dostępny jest również w University of Melbourne ePrints Repository...

Custom as a source of supranational Internet Commerce Law

Paul Przemysław Polański

Faculty of Science & Faculty of Law,
The University of Melbourne,
July 2003.

Abstract
The Internet has changed the world. Its impact on the global society has been enormous, redefining almost every aspect of our life. It has also added a new quality to traditional commerce that in many instances has drastically transformed the way companies and individuals trade. However, electronic commerce is not a legally safe environment, as there exists a regulatory gap that introduces uncertainty surrounding rights and obligations in cyberspace. This may result in unexpected outcomes for e-commerce participants involved in litigation. Contrary to common beliefs, the Internet does not function in a legal vacuum. The perceived lack of regulation is due to a lack of written and supranationally binding Internet law. However, the Internet community has already developed a set of norms that guide their behaviour. Some of them, because of their legal importance, could be regarded as Internet customary law. But their content needs to be “uncovered.”

The major objective of this thesis is to analyse the concept of custom in the context of international electronic commerce. This work introduces the concept of electronic commerce custom (e-custom) as a potential remedy in removing legal uncertainty in the electronic environment. The thesis sets out the issues associated with the concept of electronic commerce custom and analyses them using developments from neighbouring fields of legal knowledge, mainly international public law.

One of the most important issues associated with making use of the idea of e-custom is its proof. This thesis proposes a new way of evidencing customary practices in electronic commerce using the capabilities of the Internet and the environment used to build it to track behaviour of the participants. The new methodology is based on three tests that assess the extent to which a given norm is practiced by the Internet community.

Finally, the thesis tests the methodology in two hypothetical case studies involving the confirmation of order and the support for strong encryption in the banking industry. These two case studies are referred to throughout the whole thesis to illustrate problems with the existing Internet law framework and the potential of electronic commerce custom in addressing them.

Table of Contents

CUSTOM AS A SOURCE OF SUPRANATIONAL INTERNET COMMERCE LAW ...1
ABSTRACT ...2
DECLARATION ...3
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...4
TABLE OF CONTENTS ...5
LIST OF TABLES ...10

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ...11

1.1 CONTEXT ...11

1.2 AIM OF THE STUDY ...13

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS ...13

1.4 RESEARCH ACTIVITIES ...14

1.5 METHODOLOGY...14

1.6 IMPLICATIONS OF THE MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH ...15
1.6.1 CITATION PRACTICES ...15
1.6.2 ORGANISATION OF MATERIAL ...16
1.6.3 GLOSSARY AND DEFINITIONS ...16

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY ...16

1.8 DEFINITIONS ...17
Internet ...17
Electronic Commerce: ...18
Custom ...18
International custom ...18
Electronic commerce custom ...18
Methodology ...18

1.9 ORGANISATION OF THE THESIS ...18

1.10 HYPOTHETICAL CASE STUDIES ...19
1.10.1 TRANSACTION CONFIRMATION CASE ...20
1.10.2 STRONG ENCRYPTION CASE ...20

PART I ...21
INTERNET COMMERCE ...21

CHAPTER 2. ISSUES AND DEVELOPMENTS IN INTERNATIONAL INTERNET COMMERCE LAW ...22

2.1 INTRODUCTION ...22
2.1.1 INTERNET ...22
2.1.2 ELECTRONIC COMMERCE ...25

2.2 LEGAL ISSUES RAISED BY THE INTERNET ...27
2.2.1 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW ...27
2.2.2 CONTRACT LAW ...29
2.2.3 CRIME AND OFFENCE LAW ...30
2.2.4 PRIVACY LAW ...32
2.2.5 JURISDICTIONAL PROBLEMS ...32
2.2.6 SUMMARY ...33

2.3 LACK OF INTERNET GOVERNANCE ...34
2.3.1 TECHNICAL ORGANISATIONS ...34
2.3.2 COMMERCIAL COMPANIES AND THEIR PROPRIETARY STANDARDS ...36
2.3.3 NON-TECHNICAL ORGANISATIONS ...37
2.3.4 SUMMARY ...38

2.4 LACK OF GLOBALLY BINDING WRITTEN INTERNET LAWS ...39
2.4.1 SELF-REGULATION VERSUS HARMONISATION ...39
2.4.2 GLOBAL INTERNET COMMERCE LAW DEVELOPMENTS ...41
A. Model Law on Electronic Commerce ...42
B. European Union Directives ...43
C. Future Convention on Electronic Contracting...46
2.4.3 SUMMARY ...47

2.5 ATTEMPT TO SOLVE HYPOTHETICAL CASE STUDIES ...47
2.5.1 TRANSACTION CONFIRMATION CASE ...47
A. Model Law...48
B. Electronic Commerce Directive ...49
2.5.2 STRONG ENCRYPTION CASE ...50
2.5.3 SUMMARY OF HYPOTHETICAL CASE STUDIES ...50

2.6 SUMMARY ...50

PART II ...52

CUSTOM ...52

CHAPTER 3. THE ROLE OF CUSTOM ...53
3.1 INTRODUCTION ...53

3.2 HISTORICAL IMPORTANCE OF CUSTOM IN WESTERN CULTURE ...54
3.2.1 CUSTOM IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE ...54
3.2.2 CUSTOM IN THE EUROPEAN LEGAL TRADITION ...56
3.2.3 MEDIEVAL LAW MERCHANT ...60
3.2.4 SUMMARY ...61

3.3 CUSTOM IN OTHER LEGAL TRADITIONS ...62
3.3.1 CUSTOM IN ISLAMIC TRADITION ...62
3.3.2 CUSTOM IN HINDU TRADITION ...64
3.3.3 CUSTOM IN CHINESE TRADITION ...65
3.3.4 CUSTOM IN JAPANESE TRADITION ...65
3.3.5 CUSTOM IN TRIBAL SOCIETIES ...66
3.3.6 SUMMARY ...67

3.4 CUSTOM IN MODERN INTERNATIONAL LEGAL ORDERS ...67
3.4.1 CUSTOM IN THE NEW LAW MERCHANT ...68
A. Rebirth of the Law Merchant ...68
B. Problems with the definition of commercial custom ...69
3.4.2 CUSTOM IN INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC LAW ...72

3.5 POTENTIAL ROLE OF THE CUSTOM ON THE INTERNET ...72
3.5.1 CUSTOM AS A SOURCE OF INTERNET COMMERCE LAW ...73
3.5.2 CUSTOM AS A SOURCE OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE INTERNET ...74

3.6 CONCLUSION ...75

CHAPTER 4. INTERNATIONAL CUSTOM AND ITS PROOF ...77

4.1 INTRODUCTION ...77

4.2 THE ROLE OF CUSTOM IN INTERNATIONAL LAW ...78

4.3 THE DEFINITION OF INTERNATIONAL CUSTOM ...79

4.4 PRACTICE ...82
4.4.1 THE NOTION OF PRACTICE ...82
4.4.2 DURATION OF PRACTICE ...84
4.4.3 GENERALITY OF PRACTICE ...86
4.4.4 CONSISTENCY OF PRACTICE ...87
4.4.5 OBJECTIONS TO PRACTICE ...88
4.4.6 REPETITION OF PRACTICE ...90
4.4.7 MORALITY AND REASONABLENESS OF PRACTICE ...90
4.4.8 SUMMARY OF PRACTICE ...91

4.5 ACCEPTANCE OF PRACTICE AS LAW ...91
4.5.1 THE NOTION OF ACCEPTANCE AS LAW ...92
A. The “belief” interpretation ...92
B. The “tacit agreement” interpretation ...93
4.5.2 GENERALITY OF ACCEPTANCE ...94
4.5.3 CRITIQUE OF THE SUBJECTIVE ELEMENT ...95
A. Critique of opinio iuris ...95
B. Critique of pactum tacitum ...96

4.6 ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES ...97
4.6.1 THE “PRACTICE ONLY” APPROACH ...98
4.6.2 THE “INSTANT CUSTOM” APPROACH ...99
4.6.3 RECONCILIATORY APPROACHES ...100

4.7 JUDICIAL CONFIRMATION OF CUSTOM ...101

4.8 EVIDENCING INTERNATIONAL CUSTOM ...101
4.8.1 METHODS OF EVIDENCING CUSTOM ...101
4.8.2 RECENT EVIDENTIARY PRACTICE OF THE I.C.J ...102
A. The 1986 Nicaragua case ...102
B. The 1996 Nuclear Weapons Advisory Opinion ...106
C. The 2002 Arrest Warrant case ...108
4.8.3 TWO APPROACHES TO EVIDENCING CUSTOM ...110
A. The “declarative” approach ...110
B. The “inferential” approach ...112
4.8.4 SUMMARY OF EVIDENCING ...113

4.9 SUMMARY ...113

CHAPTER 5. INTERNET COMMERCE CUSTOM ...115

5.1 INTRODUCTION ...115

5.2 PROBLEMS WITH APPLICABILITY OF INTERNATIONAL CUSTOM TO INTERNET
COMMERCE ...116

5.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE NEW CONCEPT OF CUSTOM ...118

5.4 PROPOSED DEFINITION OF ELECTRONIC COMMERCE CUSTOM ...119

5.5 PRACTICE ...120
5.5.1 THE NOTION OF PRACTICE ...120
A. Actions ...120
B. Promises to act ...121
C. Abstention from action ...122
5.5.2 THE NOTION OF LEGALLY RELEVANT PRACTICE ...123
5.5.3 THE NOTION OF SUFFICIENTLY WIDESPREAD PRACTICE ...124
A. Practice widespread in space ...124
B. The notion of majority ...125
a. Quantitative majority ...126
b. Qualitative majority ...127
C. Practice widespread in time ...128
5.5.4 DURATION OF INTERNET PRACTICE ...128
A. Horizontal element of time ...128
B. Vertical element of time - Volume of transactions ...128
C. New meaning of time factor ...129
5.5.5 CONSISTENCY OF PRACTICE ...130
5.5.6 OBJECTIONS TO PRACTICE ...130
5.5.7 REPETITION OF PRACTICE ...131
5.5.8 MORALITY AND REASONABLENESS OF PRACTICE ...132
5.5.9 SUMMARY OF THE NOTION OF PRACTICE ...132

5.6 THE SUBJECTIVE ELEMENT ...133
5.6.1 REJECTION OF SUBJECTIVE ELEMENT IN E-CUSTOM ...133
5.6.2 EXPECTATION OF PRACTICE OBSERVANCE ...133

5.7 SUMMARY OF THE CONCEPT OF E-CUSTOM ...134

5.8 THE ROLE OF AN ADJUDICATOR ...135

5.9 HYPOTHETICAL EXAMPLES ...136
5.9.1 TRANSACTION CONFIRMATION PRACTICE ...136
5.9.2 HYPOTHETICAL TRANSACTION CONFIRMATION CASE ...140
5.9.3 TRANSACTION ENCRYPTION PRACTICE ...141
5.9.4 HYPOTHETICAL BANKING CASE ...143

5.10 CONSEQUENCES FOR THE IT INDUSTRY ...144

PART III ...145

EVIDENCING CUSTOM ...145

CHAPTER 6. EVIDENCING CUSTOM ON THE WEB ...146

6.1 INTRODUCTION ...146

6.2 PROBLEMS WITH TRADITIONAL METHODOLOGY ...146

6.3 OVERVIEW OF THE PROPOSED METHODOLOGY ...147

6.4 SAMPLING THE INTERNET ...148
6.4.1 RANDOM SAMPLING ...150
6.4.2 NON-RANDOM SAMPLING ...151
6.4.3 SAMPLE SIZE ...152
6.4.4 REPRESENTATIVENESS OF THE SAMPLE ...154
6.4.5 SUMMARY ...155

6.5 OVERVIEW OF MEANS OF EVIDENCING INTERNET CUSTOM ...155
6.5.1 HUMAN VERSUS AUTOMATION ...156
6.5.2 WEBSITE CONTENT ANALYSIS ...158
6.5.3 WEBSITE TRAFFIC ANALYSIS ...158
6.5.4 WEB INFRASTRUCTURE ANALYSIS ...159
6.5.5 DEVELOPER TOOLS ANALYSIS ...159
6.5.6 WEB PARTICIPANTS OPINION POLL ...160
6.5.7 SUMMARY ...160

6.6 PROPOSED THREE-STEP METHODOLOGY ...160
6.6.1 E-COMMERCE DEVELOPMENT TOOLS CAPABILITY TEST ...161
6.6.2 PRACTICE EXAMINATION TEST ...162
A. Automatic analysis of practice ...163
B. Manual analysis of practice ...165
6.6.3 LITERATURE REVIEW TEST ...166

6.7 HYPOTHETICAL CASE STUDIES ...167
6.7.1 TRANSACTION CONFIRMATION CASE ...167
A. E-commerce development tools capability test ...167
B. Practice examination test ...173
Automatic analysis ...173
Manual analysis ...174
C. Literature review test ...178
D. Case summary ...180
6.7.2 BANKING CASE ...180
A. E-commerce development tools capability test ...181
B. Practice examination test ...183
Automatic analysis ...183
Manual analysis ...184
C. Literature review test ...192
D. Case summary ...194

6.8 SUMMARY ...195

CONCLUSION ...197

CONTRIBUTIONS ...199

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS ...200

BIBLIOGRAPHY ...202

GLOSSARY OF LEGAL AND TECHNICAL TERMS ...228

Piotr VaGla Waglowski

VaGla
Piotr VaGla Waglowski - prawnik, publicysta i webmaster, autor serwisu VaGla.pl Prawo i Internet. Członek Rady ds Cyfryzacji przy Ministrze Cyfryzacji, ekspert w Departamencie Oceny Ryzyka Regulacyjnego Ministerstwa Rozwoju, felietonista miesięcznika "IT w Administracji" (wcześniej również felietonista miesięcznika "Gazeta Bankowa" i tygodnika "Wprost"). Uczestniczył w pracach Obywatelskiego Forum Legislacji, działającego przy Fundacji im. Stefana Batorego w ramach programu Odpowiedzialne Państwo. W 1995 założył pierwszą w internecie listę dyskusyjną na temat prawa w języku polskim, Członek Założyciel Internet Society Poland, pełnił funkcję Członka Zarządu ISOC Polska i Członka Rady Polskiej Izby Informatyki i Telekomunikacji. Był również Członkiem Rady Informatyzacji przy MSWiA, członkiem Zespołu ds. otwartych danych i zasobów przy Komitecie Rady Ministrów do spraw Cyfryzacji oraz Doradcą społecznym Prezesa Urzędu Komunikacji Elektronicznej ds. funkcjonowania rynku mediów w szczególności w zakresie neutralności sieci. W latach 2009-2014 Zastępca Przewodniczącego Rady Fundacji Nowoczesna Polska, w tym czasie był również Członkiem Rady Programowej Fundacji Panoptykon. Więcej >>